Boxing hasn’t ever been seen as a safe sport, and even more so in the periods in history when the use of a boxing glove was uncommon for a person who wanted an organised fistfight. But when were they invented?
The boxing glove, in its earliest form, were basic ‘hand protectors’ for the then-new game of boxing, created as far back as the Ancient Greek times of 3000 years ago, and it was Amycus, son of the God Poseidon, who was credited with the innovation of wrapping leather around fighter’s hands, made to protect the person throwing the punch more than the one on the receiving end, a theory that is employed to this day with modern boxing gloves, as a punch can still hurt the person applying the force.
The Greek invention was expanded on by the Romans, who, always looking for ways to make weapons more painful than normal, added a layer of metal under their version of the glove (the gladiatorial cestus), although it was soon banned, with the sport of boxing also outlawed a few centuries later.
The sport of boxing would make a comeback in 17th century Britain, but almost all fights would be bare-knuckle, until the publication of the Marquess of Queensbury Rules (which are still followed today) in 1867. English bare-knuckle fighter Jack Broughton is credited with the invention of the modern-day version of the boxing glove (then known as a pair of ‘mufflers’) in the late 18th century, and the basic design has been brought forward with the sport as it developed. Nowadays, if you want a legal and official boxing fight, a pair of boxing gloves must be worn, though there is criticism that the padded gloves do nothing other than change the type of damage that could be caused (the most common of these is brain damage over cuts and wounds), but is still seen as a more acceptable alternative to fighting ‘naturally’.
For proof that boxing can be dangerous no matter what you have on your hands, here is a compilation of some of the most famous (and painful) professional boxing knockouts in history. Don’t try this at home!
Its hard to believe that at one time you could not wake yourself up with a strong cup of stimulating caffeine filled coffee. So where does coffee come from?
Dating back to the 15th century in the far east are legends that say coffee was first discovered by a goat herder in the Yemen. He noticed that after eating the red fruit of the coffee bush his goats stayed awake all night.
In 1822, the first espresso machine was made in France. In 1933, Dr. Ernest Illy invented the first automatic espresso machine. However, the modern-day espresso machine was created by Italian Achilles Gaggia in 1946. Gaggia invented a high pressure espresso machine by using a spring powered lever system. The first pump driven espresso machine was produced in 1960 by the Faema company.
Melitta Bentz a housewife from Dresden, Germany invented the first coffee filter. She wanted to brew the perfect cup of coffee without the bitterness caused by overbrewing. She decided to invent a way to make a filtered coffee, pouring boiling water over ground coffee and having the liquid be filtered, removing any grinds. Melitta Bentz experimented with different materials, then used her sons blotter paper from school worked best. She cut a round piece of blotting paper and put it in a metal cup.
On June 20th, 1908, the coffee filter and filter paper were patented. On December 15th, 1908, Melitta Bentz and her husband Hugo started the Melitta Bentz Company. The next year they sold 1200 coffee filters at the Leipziger fair in Germany. The Mellitta Bentz Company also patented the filter bag in 1937 and vacuum packing in 1962.
James Mason invented the coffee percolator on December 26, 1865.
Probably best known around the world is instant coffee which is easier to dissolve in hot water. This was invented in 1901, by Japanese American chemist Satori Kato of Chicago. In 1906, English chemist George Constant Washington, invented the first mass-produced instant coffee. Washington was living in Guatemala and at the time when he observed dried coffee on his coffee carafe, after experimenting he created “Red E Coffee” – the brand name for his instant coffee first marketed in 1909. In 1938, Nescafe or ‘freeze dried’ coffee was invented.
Some wonder what the point is of taking the caffeine away but decaffeinated coffee was invented in 1903 by German coffee importer, Ludwig Roselius, who turned a batch of ruined coffee beans over to researchers. Although not the first to remove caffeine, they perfected the process of removing caffeine from the beans without destroying any flavour. He marketed the coffee under the brand name ‘Sanka’ (a contraction of ‘sans caffeine’). Sanka was introduced into the US in 1923.
Coffee is the second most traded product in the world after petroleum. World wide coffee production tips the scales at about 6 million metric tonnes.
It takes five years for a coffee tree to reach maturity. The average yield from one tree is the equivalent of one roasted pound of coffee.
People who buy coffee primarily at drive through windows on their way to work will spend as much as 45 hours a year waiting in line.
Of the various botanical species of coffee trees in the world, only two are extensively cultivated commercially; Arabica and Robusta.
The first coffee house in Europe opened in Venice in 1683, while coffee was available in Europe as early as 1608, mostly for the rich.
The largest coffee producing nation is Brazil, responsible for 30 to 40 % of total world output.
Helicopters look nice hovering around, but where did they come from?
A long time ago in the 16th century, Leonardo da Vinci thought up the concept but could not provide a propulsion system. There are many different models of helicopters and helicopter type machines that had been made since then. Dating back to the fifth century, Chinese children often played with bamboo flying toys, propellers attached to a stick that, when spun, makes the propeller fly into the air. Leonardo da Vinci produced an “aerial screw,” but was challenged by the fact that the rotor would make the entire craft spin. In 1861, a French inventor named Gustave de Ponton d’Amecourt used the term “helicopter” to describe his steam-powered aluminum model; however, it would not fly. Slovak inventor Jon Bahyl made a model utilizing an internal combustion engine that, in 1905, was able to get four meters off the ground and travel a distance of 1,500 meters before landing.
The first manned helicopter flight took place in 1907 when two French brothers, Jacques and Louis Breguet, lifted their Gyroplane No. 1 about two feet in the air while tethered to the ground. The first untethered flight was by fellow Frenchman Paul Cornu, who, in the same year, was able to launch his helicopter six feet into the air. Cornu’s helicopter utilized two twenty-foot rotors that counter-rotated. These early experiments in helicopter design were overshadowed by the success of the Wright Brothers and the fixed-wing plane, but their own success was limited and the helicopters were abandoned, having proved to be very unstable.
In the 1920s, Argentine Raul Pateras Pescara and Frenchman Etienne Oemichen drew great attention to themselves and the helicopter with a series of feats to outdo each other. On April 14, 1924, Oemichen set a record by flying his helicopter for 360 meters. Four days later, Pescara flew his nearly a half mile while six feet off the ground. On May 4, Oemichen flew his a record one mile, with an altitude of fifty feet. He then went on to claim the title of fastest helicopter with a mile run in just seven minutes.
The Soviet Union generated great interest in the concept of the helicopter. They developed the TsAGI 1-EA, combining tubed framework, a four blade rotor, and two smaller rotors placed at the nose and tail. The TsAGI 1-EA shattered all previous records by attaining a height of 605 meters in 1932. The Soviets launched a program to develop a successful line of helicopters and by 1936, sustained flights of one hour were possible. With the onset of World War II, helicopter technology was burgeoning.
Nazi Germany attempted to mass produce helicopters in World War II, but was stifled by Allied bombing raids. Its Focke-Wulfe FW-61 broke every established record for altitude, speed, and endurance. They began to use helicopters for observation, transport, and medical evacuations in combat. The United States produced over four hundred helicopters during the war, used for rescue under harsh conditions. After the war, the Bell Aircraft company began to mass produce helicopters for civilian use. Utilizing a teetering-blade rotor with a stabilizing bar, the Bell 47 became the most popular helicopter for nearly thirty years. All facets of American life transformed, from news casting to mail delivery.
The final component for the modern helicopter was the invention of the turbine engine. The turbo shaft allowed less weight to impact the helicopter, as traditional piston engines were heavy and had extra components the turbine engine was able to eliminate. With the optimization of shaft power rather than jet thrust, the turbine caused manufacturers to be able to build larger and more efficient models. The advancements in aeronautics made the ability to build helicopters powerful enough to lift houses and vehicles a new found asset. With the power to take off and land at a single point, the helicopter has revolutionized air transportation.
Top Ten Best Helicopters Video
* Did you know that helicopters are safer than airplanes.
* If the engine stops, the helicopter rotor continues to spin allowing the machine to slowly land, generally with out crashing to the ground.
* Modern day helicopters are no more difficult to fly than many types of fixed wing airplanes.
* Helicopters are the safest aircraft to fly in bad weather as they can slow down, stop and/or fly backwards or sideways.
* More than 3 million lives have been saved by helicopters in both peacetime and wartime operations since the first person was rescued from the sea in 1944.
* US police and emergency rescue helicopters transport about 15000 patients every year saving thousands of lives.
* There are more than 11000 civil helicopters operating in the U.S.
* There are more than 15000 civil helicopters operating in more than 157 other countries around the world.
* If you include military helicopters it is estimated that there are more than 45000 operating worldwide.
* Helicopters can be flown across oceans if additional fuel is made available or in-flight refueling is carried out.
* If you want to travel 300 to 400 miles the helicopter is often the quickest means of transportation.
* Tilting the main rotors enables the helicopter to lift, go forward, backwards or sideways. The power provided by the engine is principally used to turn the rotors.
Like a lot of inventions, Watler Diemer (1904-1998) didn’t get it right on
the first attempt.
In 1928, Walter Diemer who worked as an accountant for the Fleer Chewing Gum Company in Philadelphia, experimented on new gum recipes in his spare time. But his latest batch was less sticky than regular chewing gum and it stretched more easily.
Originally the idea of bubble gum was thought up by
Vincent Geoffion Hughes in 1906. with his assisant, Keegan C. Marr,
they came up with a gum which was too sticky so they gave up as they
had better things to do.
In 1928 Diemar produced a gum which wasn’t
sticky and did not fall apart. He explained that it was an accident and
that he was doing something else when he found something which made
bubbles. He first discover the bubbles when he was 23 years old. When
Diemer first put it on sale in the local shop, it sold out on the first day and was so successful that it sold over a million and a half dollars worth of gum in the first year.
It was first called “Blow Gum” then “Blow Bubble” then “Dubble Bubble”.
The Dubble Bubble gum was not under threat by any competition for years.
Three year later, Bazooka(bubble gum and sweet company) ask Diemar to
join and become vice president. He took the job and it was a great success!
There were at least a dozen chewing gum companies from
the United States, but the industry was relatively undeveloped. William
Wrigley Jr started to sell Chewing gum under his own name. Mr.Wrigley
sold a chewing gum which became the most popular called Juicy Fruit. It
was a big hit in North America.Then Spearmint gum and Dubblemint, which are still a classics favourite all over the world today.
As the company continued to grow, more gum was invented. For example:-
Extra (in different flavors)
and many more….
Amazingly Diemar never received royalties for his invention, his wife told the newspapers, but he didn’t seem to mind; knowing what he’d created was reward enough. Sometimes he’d invite a bunch of kids to the house and tell them the story of his wonderful, accidental invention. Then he’d hold bubble-blowing contests for them.
Facts About Gum
# During WW1, US military personnel spread the popularity of chewing gum by trading it and giving it as gifts to people in Europe, Africa, Asia and around the world.
# The first patent for chewing gum was issued in 1869 to William F. Semple, a dentist from Mount Vernon, Ohio.
# Did you know that their are more than 1,000 varieties of gum manufactured and sold in the Untied States.
# Cinnamon, Spearmint, and Peppermint are the most popular flavors of gum.
# Do you know why gum is pink? The color of the first successful bubble gum was pink because it was the only color the inventor had left. The color “Stuck” and today bubble gum is still mostly pink.
# North America kids spend approximately half a billion dollars on bubble gum every year.
# The largest bubble ever blown was 23 inches in diameter. The record was set on July 19, 1994 by Susan Montgomery Willams of Fresno California.
# Tips for getting gum unstuck from clothing: try scraping off any excess gum with a dull knife and then rubbing the area with ice until the remaining gum rolls off into a ball.
# We’ve done the impossible and now, you can try it to! We’ve done all this while blowing a bubble. Smiling through your teeth, frowning, laughing, out of the bottom of your mouth, side of your mouth, top of your mouth, while kissing something, and while blowing your nose.
How gum is made
* The gum’s ingredients are melted and filtered.
* Powered sugar, glucose syrup, flavoring and the other ingredients are slowly added to the gum base until the warm mix thickness like dough.
* Machines called extruders are used to blend, smooth, and form the gum.
* It’s time for gum to be shaped. Gum can be flattened and cut into sticks, or squeezed into a rope shape and cut into chunks, or molded into shapes, and candy coated.
* After the gum is cut or molded into the appropriate shape, it’s lightly sprinkled with powdered sweetener to keep it from sticking to machinery.
* In carefully temperature controlled room, the gum is cooled for up to 48 hours. This allows the gum to properly set.
* If the gum is candy coated, like most gum balls or pellet gum, it’s sprayed again. This process is repeated several times until the candy shell reaches the proper thickness.
Interesting facts about gum from the past
Ancient Greeks chewed a gum like substance called mastic. Women especially liked gum because it cleaned their teeth and it exercised their jaw muscles.
# The longest gum wrapper chain on record was 7,400 feet in length and was made by Cathy Ushler of Redmond, WA between 1969-1992.
How To Blow The Perfect Bubble Gum Bubble
Some people seem to have the knack to blow huge bubbles with any piece of gum while others never quite get the hang of it. Try following these instructions, but remember not to cheat and use your hands at any time – the preparation of the gum must always take place in the mouth.
1. To begin with, use one piece of bubblegum and work it around your mouth until it is soft. Then roll it into a ball with your tongue and using the roof of your mouth to lean on. Then move this ball of gum so that it is right behind your front teeth, and use your tongue again to flatten the ball into a small, flat, circle. Push it against the back of your teeth to flatten it.
2. The gum should now be behind your front teeth in the flattened shape. Using your tongue, push through this flat piece of gum until your tongue is covered by a thin layer of gum – be gentle, don’t just poke your tongue right through! Then take your tongue out of the layer. If it does burst, you must go back and re-roll the gum and then flatten it out against your teeth again.
3. Now you have got this thin layer of gum. Hold it with your lips and blow from your lungs, and a bubble should appear. Many people make the mistake of blowing just out of their lips but this will not be strong enough to produce a proper bubble. Keep blowing as long as you can, or until the bubble bursts.
4. Once you have done this a few times, try adding to the piece of gum in your mouth and see what sort of bubble you can produce with more than one piece. It definitely passes the time!!
We all like to eat a sandwich and its hard to believe they didnt exist at one time!
John Montague, 4th Earl of Sandwich (1718-1792) is supposed to have invented the sandwich as a quick meal so as not to interrupt his gambling sessions. However some form of a sandwich was probably eating before this time when more humans ate with their hands rather than using utensils. In facts there is some references in history where soldiers would wrap stew or food in a bun or piece of meat.
The sandwich slowly began appearing in polite society as a late-night meals. The sandwich’s was popular all round the world
in the 19th century. In the United States, the sandwich was first elaborate meal at supper. By the early 20th
century, as bread became a staple of the world wide diet, the sandwich became the same kind of quick meal.
However the sandwich concept was around long before then. The first form of sandwich is attributed to the ancient Jewish sage Hillel the Elder, who is said to have put meat from the Paschal lamb and bitter herbs inside matzo (or flat, unleavened bread) during Passover.
During the Middle Ages, thick slabs of coarse and usually stale bread, called trenchers, were used as plates. After a meal, the food-soaked trencher was fed to dogs, beggars, or eaten by the diner.
History of the Sandwich Video
The ham sandwich is still the most popular sandwich in the United States, and in second place is the BLT (bacon, lettuce and tomato). It is estimated that Americans eat 300 million sandwiches each day – that’s more than one for every man, woman and child in the nation!